公链技术难题挑战_公有链_Larry_Genaro Network_区块链技术_区块链神吐槽
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追寻中本聪先生的脚步

公链技术难题挑战_公有链_Larry_Genaro Network

如何设计可持续的共识机制

Let’s start with the first challenge: “how to design a sustainable consensus mechanism”. The most popular consensus is proof of work. Because in a Nakamoto consensus blockchain system, the longest chain is the only correct chain, to avoid attackers forking and extending the forked chain too easily, miners have to contribute enough computing power by solving math puzzles to put the blocks they have discovered onto the chain. But this causes serious energy waste: in 2017, the electricity used in bitcoin mining cost is over that of 159 countries. Additionally, the cost is not going toward useful computation – it's not computation of genetic engineering nor artificial intelligence, which would be useful in the real world, it's just using computation for solving random math puzzles.

公链的第一个挑战是“如何设计可持续的共识机制”。

最普遍的共识是工作证明(PoW)

因为在中本聪共识协议的区块链系统中,最长的链是唯一正确的链,为了避免攻击者太过容易地分叉并且拓展分叉链,矿工必须通过解决数学难题来将他们发现的块放入链中以贡献足够的计算能力。

但这会造成严重的能源浪费:2017年,比特币采矿成本所用的电力超过了159个国家的用电量。

此外,该成本并没有转向有用的计算 – 不是计算基因工程或人工智能这些在现实世界中很有用的问题,而是计算随机的没有意义的数学难题。

To avoid this issue, people start to support PoS: proof of stake. It allows miners to extend the blockchain by staking their token without any computation power. However, pure PoS will introduce security issues, such as the “long range attack” and “nothing at stake”; this is because anyone can extend the blockchain only if he has enough tokens, so the chain is easier to be forked.

为了避免这个问题,人们开始支持PoS:权益证明

它允许矿工通过押注来扩展区块链而无需任何算力。然而,单纯的PoS会引来安全问题,例如“远程攻击”和“无利害关系”; 这是因为任何人只要有足够的通证都可以扩展区块链,因此链条更容易分叉。

So we need to design a sustainable consensus mechanism, to find some useful computation to secure the PoS

所以我们需要设计一个可持续的共识机制,找到一些有用的计算来保证PoS的安全性。

如何建立点对点的共享网络

The second challenge is how to establish a peer to peer sharing network.

第二个挑战是如何建立点对点的共享网络。

Bitcoin was invented to create a pure peer to peer system, and so were most public chains. In such a system, all nodes have to have the right or ability to share something to earn rewards. Otherwise they would only become consumers. It’s like in any community, anyone has to earn resources in order to survive here.

比特币是为了创建一个单纯的点对点系统而发明的,大多数公链都是如此。 在这样的系统中,所有节点必须有权利或能够分享某些东西来获得奖励。 否则,他们只能成为消费者。 这就像在任何一个社区里,任何人都必须获取资源才能生存一样。
Personally I haven’t mined bitcoin, because back in 2015 when I first started working on blockchain, my laptop could hardly mine any bitcoin. I have mined Ethereum, but only for about half a year. Then it became impossible as well. This is because computation power has a monopoly effect – if you are a big mining factory and I am a laptop, I am not going to earn any reward because the task takes you 1 minute to finish and takes me 1 hour, you take away the reward while I am just getting started. This also happens more thanks to the revving up of the “arms race”in mining industry, whereby people are always busy with creating more advanced mining machines.

就我个人而言,我没有挖过比特币,因为在2015年我第一次开始研究区块链时,我的笔记本电脑已经几乎挖不出任何比特币了。

我以前挖过以太坊,但也只持续了大概半年时间。后来,这也都变得不可能了。这是因为算力的垄断效应 - 如果你是一家大型矿厂,而我只是一台笔记本电脑,我将不会获得任何奖励,因为你花1分钟完成的任务,我需要1个小时,你拿走奖励的时候,我才刚刚开始。

这种情况越来越多地发生还因为挖矿的“军备竞赛”,人们总是忙于创造更先进的采矿机器。

To solve this problem, people start to think of sharing more things instead of computation power, such as storage. There are certain products that work well, such as Storj, ipfs, sia, and Genaro sharer, launched by the Genaro team. However, purely sharing storage and getting the reward from whoever uses the storage without any system-based reward, this cannot satisfy the sharers – they expect much more. For example, bitcoin mining also comes from system rewards, instead of purely from transaction fees. This cannot last forever. We need to find out a fair business model – this means we need to think about what else users could share to earn reward.

为了解决这个问题,人们开始考虑共享更多的东西,而不是算力,比如存储。有些产品运行良好,例如Storj,ipfs,sia和由Genaro团队开发的Genaro Sharer。但纯粹共享存储空间并从使用存储的人那里获得奖励,但没有任何系统奖励的话,无法满足分享者们的期望——他们想要的远远不止这些。 例如,比特币采矿也来自系统奖励,而不是仅仅来自交易费。这不是长远之计。我们需要找出一个公平的商业模式 - 这意味着我们需要考虑还有哪些用户可以分享的东西以获得奖励。

如何增加每秒的区块链交易TPS

The third challenge is: how to increase blockchain transactions per second, as is known as TPS. This was one of the hottest topics over the past year and still is. Many projects are working on it in different ways. Basically:

TPS = concurrency divided by average response time.

第三个挑战是:如何增加每秒的区块链交易,即所谓的TPS。这是过去一年中最热门的话题之一,现在依然如此。许多项目正在以不同的方式开展工作。TPS =并发数除以平均响应时间。

So naturally,projects such as Zilliqa, Ethereum apply sharding techniques to blockchain to increase the concurrency.

因此很自然的想法,例如Zilliqa,Ethereum等项目将分片(sharding)技术应用于区块链以提高并发数。

In a blockchain system,TPS also equals to the amount of transactions in one block divided by the time of generating one block. So bitcoin could increase TPS by increasing block size, so there could be more transactions in one block. On the other hand, EOS uses DPoS techniques to decrease the time of generating one block. Only 21 master nodes reaching consensus takes a much shorter time than reaching consensus by all nodes. Some projects try to jump out the box – they put certain transactions outside blockchain. This is called an“off-chain” solution, examples being the Raiden network or lightning network. It's like, if you run a coffee shop, all transactions happen inside your coffee shop, buy a cup of cappuccino, or something, only comes to you, then you clearing with the global financial system at last.

在一个区块链系统中,TPS也等于一个块中的事务数量除以生成一个块的时间。

所以比特币可以通过增加块的大小来增加TPS,因此在一个块中可能会有更多的交易。

另一方面,EOS使用DPoS技术来减少产生一个块的时间。

21个达成共识的主节点花费的时间要比所有节点达成共识的时间短得多。有些项目试图另辟蹊径 - 他们把某些交易放在区块链之外进行。

这被称为链下解决方案,例如Raiden网络或闪电网络。简单来讲就是,如果你经营一家咖啡店,所有的交易都发生在你的咖啡店里,买一杯卡布奇诺或者其他什么,只跟你结算,最后你会跟全球的金融系统来结算。

All these projects are great innovations, but most of them try to increase efficiency by sacrificing security and decentralization too much. There is no way to break the trilemma. But we also need to think about the how to maintain security and decentralization level to meet market need, or how to establish secure and trusted system in other ways.

所有这些项目都是伟大的创新,但是他们大多数都是通过牺牲安全性与去中心化程度来实现增加效率的。

三角限制自然不能打破,但我们依然需要去思考如何维持一个符合市场需求的安全与去中心化程度的水平,或者说用其他方法建造安全与可信的系统。

如何以去中心化的方式安全地存储DAPP数据

The fourth challenge is "how to store DAPPs’ data securely in a decentralized way". Most DAPPs today are still using cloud servers such as amazon cloud. Blockchain is not designed to store data because no node could store all data comes from all Dapps. That's why Ethereum swarm is so limited. There are some projects working on decentralized storage, such as ipfs, Storj and of course Genaro Eden. Unfortunately, most the decentralized storage is isolated from the public chain. It’s like your CPU and hard drive are separated.

第四个挑战是“如何以去中心化的方式安全地存储DAPP数据”。

今天大多数DAPP仍在使用云服务器,如亚马逊云。

区块链不用于存储数据,因为没有节点可以存储来自所有DAPP的所有数据。这就是为什么Ethereum Swarm如此有限。有一些项目正在研究去中心化存储,如ipfs,storj,当然还有Genaro Eden

不幸的是,大多数点对点存储是与公链相隔离的。这就好比你的CPU和硬盘是分开的。

如何建立区块链和现实世界之间的数据通道

The fifth is “how to establish data channels between blockchains and the real world”. Currently the blockchain and the real world are isolated because of the trickiness of pulling data from outside. When miners run smart contracts on virtual machine, it is not possible to grab the exact same data at the same time. Let’s say there is a Dapp arranging my travel to Vietnam here, when help me book the flight, the ticket price varies on different website, some miner may go to expedia while some may go to skyscanner.

第五个是“如何建立区块链和现实世界之间的数据通道”。

目前区块链和现实世界是孤立的,因为有从外部拉取数据的难度。

当矿工在虚拟机上运行智能合约时,不可能同时获取完全相同的数据。假设有一个DAPP将我的旅行安排在越南,帮助我预订航班,不同网站上的票价会有所不同,有些矿工可能会去expedia,有些可能会去skyscanner。

Current solution is to make a prediction market work as an oracle machine, and push data to the blockchain, this includes projects like Augur, Gnosis etc. however, the way this market works is whichever data has the highest stake, is regarded as correct. The logic is that those who bet more will try harder to get the right data. Obviously, they are all good Dapps, but is not enough to work as oracle machine.

目前的解决方案是使预测市场成为一个预言机,并将数据推送到区块链,这包括诸如Augur,Gnosis等项目。

然而,这个市场运作的方式是,无论哪个数据有最高的stake,就被认为是正确的。

运行的逻辑是那些下注越多的人会更努力获得正确的数据。很明显,它们都是很好的DAPP,但不足以好到像预言机那样工作。

如何设计一个可持续的通证模型

The sixth hard problem is how to design a sustainable token model. For instance, the transaction fees are too high. If you buy a coffee with bitcoin, the transaction fee might be higher than the coffee itself. This leads to the bitcoin’s value becoming negative if we apply purchasing power parity to estimate bitcoin. Also most public chains are relying on the mining or forging model too much. But think about where the system reward comes from? It actually from who join the system later. Finally, a utility token could be used for a product or service. This may be the most promising innovation in the fintech area, however this also cause the service price fluctuates too much.

第六个难题是如何设计一个可持续的通证模型

例如,交易费用太高。 如果你用比特币买咖啡,交易费可能会高于咖啡本身。

如果我们用购买力平价来估计比特币,这可能导致比特币的价值变为负值。另外,大多数公链都过度依赖挖矿或创造模型。但想想系统奖励是从哪里来的? 它实际上是系统后来的加入者带来的。

最后,实用通证可以用于产品或服务。

这可能是金融科技领域最有前景的创新,但这也导致服务价格波动过大。

People are thinking other kind of solutions such as DAG, which has no transaction fee. Also there are stable token like Dai and Tether. Just note that token model is still at very early stage that most problems are open problems that there is not a single solution could solve all those problems.

人们开始想其他形式的解决方案,例如DAG, 没有手续费。同时也有稳定通证,例如Dai和Tether。

需要注意的是通证模型的设计还在非常早期的阶段,大多数问题都是开放问题,没有一个解决方案可以解决全部问题。

区块链治理

Lastly, how to specify blockchain governance?

最后,如何具体描述区块链治理?

Reaching consensus for a single block is easy, but for the whole project’s direction it is extremely hard. In traditional structures such as a company, we organize individuals by department and reward by salary. management groups discuss important things, and the board of directors has the most power to decide things. However, blockchain is governed in a decentralized way, we need to organize each kind of community member well by fair incentive.

达成一个区块的共识很容易,但对于整个项目的方向来说,这是非常困难的。 在像公司这样的传统结构中,我们按部门组织人员,然后管理团队讨论重要的事情,董事会决定事情的权力最大。然而,区块链是以去中心化的方式进行管理的。

For instance, bitcoin uses BIP signal system; when someone wants something, he or she just writes the information in block and there is no guarantee this suggestion is listened and adapted or not – the bitcoin core team still needs lot of off line discussion and can hardly reach other miners and token holders.

例如,比特币使用BIP信号系统; 当有人想要某些东西时,他或她只是将信息写入区块,并不能保证这个建议是被听取和采用的 - 比特币核心团队仍然需要大量的离线讨论,并且很难接触到其他矿工和通证持有者。
EOS tries to solve this problem by voting. Setting aside the whole problem of bribery during elections, its logic is "whoever has the power to attract most votes has the ability to guard the chain ." We think there might be a better logic to solve this problem.

EOS试图通过投票解决这个问题。抛开选举期间的所有贿赂问题,其逻辑是“谁有能力吸引大多数选票就有能力保护链”。我们认为可能有更好的解决该问题的逻辑。

Blockchain technology has been developing for decades and all the mentioned projects are great innovations. However, this industry develops so fast that technology iterates fast as well. When everyone tries to add padding to current blockchains such as Ethereum, we think, why not make a new thing and try to solve the issues at the first time designing the system? like it is said “the best way to improve a carriage is to make a car.”

区块链技术已经发展了数十年,所有上面提到的项目都是伟大的创新。

但是,这个行业发展得如此之快,以至于技术的迭代速度也很快。当每个人都试图向当前的区块链系统,例如在以太坊上打补丁时,我们觉得,为什么不做一个新的东西,在设计之初就试图解决这些问题?正如一句古话 “改进马车的最好方法是发明汽车”。

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